The development of implantable devices has been a game ch愤怒 in the medical profession, 让许多病人重获新生. 然而, 接受植入还会改变一个人的认同感,并对他们的心理健康产生持久的影响. 社会科学家吉尔·哈多博士的研究使使用这些设备的人能够接受他们的身体改造,进而提高他们的幸福感.

A still from Dr Gill Haddow's 电影 entitled Everyday Cyborgs
A still from Dr Gill Haddow's 电影 entitled Everyday Cyborgs

莎拉·林肯著 Publishing and Communications Manager, Communications and Marketing

The word cyborg may conjure images of fictitious half-human half-android movie characters, 比如机械战警, 但吉尔·哈多博士, 科学高级讲师, Technology and Innovation Studies at the University, the word is something that can be applied to real people in the real world. 这就是为什么她把它收回来了, coining the term ‘everyday cyborgs’ to refer to those who have implantable cybernetic devices.


“The word ‘cybernetic’ is important,” says Dr Haddow. “The word ‘cyborg’ is a portmanteau of two terms, “控制论”和“有机体”, 创造“cyborg”这个词. 它是由两位研究人员介绍的, 克莱因斯和克莱恩, in their article ‘Cyborgs and Space’ in September 1960, 讨论这种控制系统如何成为人体的必要和重要修改,使未来的太空旅行和探索成为可能.”

读了这篇文章后,哈多博士突然意识到这个词也可以用来识别正常人, 离地球更近, who have underg一个 life-changing medical device surgery.

“威尼斯注册登录主页研究探索了作为一个‘日常半机械人’生活,并在体内植入控制医疗设备是什么感觉,哈多博士继续说道. “The ‘everyday’ makes it clear that this cyborg existence is 一个 that is routine and ordinary and, 重要的是, “日常半机械人”一词强调了技术与有机混合的创造所带来的“新常态”的脆弱性和挑战, 即使这是一个救命的问题.”

One particular type of cybernetic device is an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD). ICD是一种通过手术植入人体内的医疗技术,可以防止已经发生过心脏骤停的人发生心脏骤停, 或者有风险, 一个. It senses when the heart begins to beat in an irregular way, 或者太快, and reacts by emitting electrical shocks to return it to a normal rhythm.

“It works in a similar way to the thermostat in a house’s heating system,” explains Dr Haddow. “When the temperature in the house becomes too warm, 系统感知到这一点, 关掉暖气. When the temperature drops beyond the pre-set level, the heating comes on again.” 

她的研究揭示了通过插入“智能”医疗设备对身体身份关系的移植和身体改造的影响的新认识. 这让她认识了许多患有icd的人,听他们讲述了带着这些植入物生活对他们生活的影响.

A still from Dr Gill Haddow's 电影 entitled Maggie's ICD Story
A still from Dr Gill Haddow's 电影 entitled Maggie's ICD Story


After receiving a Wellcome Trust University award in 2013, Dr Haddow went on to collaborate with 一个 such patient called Maggie, along with a 电影maker to coproduce a short 电影 about her ICD implantation.

题目是Maggie的ICD故事, the 电影 takes the viewer on a very personal and emotional journey, 看着麦琪公开记录她在得知需要植入牙体时经历的最初的恐惧和焦虑,直到她接受它成为自己身体的一部分, and 最终 embracing the benefits it brings her life in terms of health and wellbeing.  

The finished 电影 was selected for the Medicine, What Now? exhibition at the Wellcome Trust’s Collection’s permanent gallery Medicine Now (2007–2019), 吸引了大约550人,每年有000名游客. 

Dr Haddow found the experience of working with Maggie, and others like her, profoundly inspiring.

“I am always struck by people’s readiness to engage and share their experiences of health, 疾病和疾病,她说. “有时候这些故事非常难讲(有时要重述Maggie的ICD故事),我总是很感激和谦卑,因为人们愿意和我分享他们的话, 完全陌生的人.”

A still from Dr Gill Haddow's 电影 entitled 破碎的翅膀
A still from Dr Gill Haddow's 电影 entitled 破碎的翅膀

Keen to explore opportunities to widen participation in her research, Haddow embarked on an 18-month 电影 with six young people from a deprived area of Edinburgh. Working closely with Scotland’s leading animators, 来自Screen Writing Edinburgh和Legs on Lens等组织的声音制作人和创意艺术家,  the young crew led the project and learned how to write, 直接, 电影, 动画并提供一个乐谱.

产生的胶片, 破碎的翅膀, is a modern Gothic tale of a teenage girl coming to terms with her body modification, 利用人到鸟的转变的类比,让观众了解一个人的异种移植的经验.

Maggie’s ICD story and 破碎的翅膀 along with two more 电影s, 电子人心脏和日常电子人, 已经被纳入了一部45分钟的纪录片,其中穿插了哈多博士和合作项目的电影制作人和插画家的电影介绍.


When asked why she chose to create 电影s around the subject, Dr Haddow is clear and passionate about her reasons.

“威尼斯注册登录主页日常电子人的电影和动画, 在科幻小说中,威尼斯注册登录主页对“电子人是怪物”的描述更为熟悉和习惯,但它提供了另一种选择. 进一步, both 电影 and animation makes the issues more accessible and meaningful to every一个 and therefore takes us beyond the written word; this was extremely important in terms of participant collaboration and empowerment.”


Some viewers may find some scenes contain sensitive content.



“I would like to think the 电影s make people re-evaluate the cyborgisation process. 这是, 威尼斯注册登录主页绝对需要控制装置,应该继续研究和开发这些技术,她说. “然而, 每天的电子人都需要支持,以适应在他们体内的技术中生活, 可以随时电击他们.”

“This can result in a sense of alienation; in effect producing anxiety and 抑郁症,她继续说道. “然而, 如果日常的半机械人开始认为ICD为他们工作(而不是与他们对抗), then they are more likely to ‘humanise’ it and integrate it as part of their identity.”

The impact of Dr Haddow’s research is reaching both medical practiti一个rs and policymakers.

Having met with the Cardiology department at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Dr Haddow interviewed the hospital’s ICD patients. 她发现,尽管这些患者与其他心脏病患者有着相似的经历, 他们面临着额外的挑战.

这些都是精神上的, 比如苦恼, 愤怒, 抑郁症, 焦虑和社交孤立, 还有物理上的, such as pain from the electric shocks the ICD emits. 她的发现鼓励心脏病专家采取更全面的方法来管理植入式设备患者的护理.

除了, 纳菲尔德生物伦理委员会就2019年威尼斯注册登录主页医疗设备引发的安全问题的简报与哈多博士进行了联系,最终的相关新闻稿被280个新闻网站转载.

The cover of Dr Gill Haddow's book entitled 化身和日常电子人
Dr Gill Haddow's book entitled 化身和日常电子人


以及通过电影来探索这个主题, Dr Haddow has written a play and recently published a book. 这本书, 化身和日常电子人, 让读者思考的医学问题, 如果有选择, 他们更喜欢人类吗?, non-human animal organ transplants or implantable cybernetic technologies to replace their own?

进一步, it offers an insight into what the future of humanity may look like, bringing what we may have once thought of as science fiction closer to a medical reality.

“In the book I suggest that with increasing gains in life longevity, more of us will require more materialities in us. 为了不断修复,威尼斯注册登录主页的身体将成为不同材料和技术的蒙太奇, replacing and even regenerating our aging and ailing human bodies; the born body will become a rare occurrence. 威尼斯注册登录主页上了年纪的身体将会被不同种类和不同种类的材料搅乱,这不仅会影响到人类的形态,也会影响到人类的身份.”

这是一个发人深省的概念,从哲学上挑战读者去质疑拥有身体意味着什么:“我想知道书中的一些观点是否会导致一些人反思,是什么让他们的身体对他们的身份感如此特殊, and why certain modifications to the body can strongly alter their sense of subjectivity.”

通过她的书和电影,用社会学研究方法产生的经验数据,哈多博士的跨学科方法使威尼斯注册登录主页日常电子人的对话更容易理解和, 最终, 更人性化.

“Being interdisciplinary was at the heart of the project, and I wanted the journey to be meaningful and comprehensible, as well as stimulating difference so that further discussion and debate will ensue,她解释道. “试图做到这一点是雄心勃勃的. 而是把有创意的专业人士聚集在一起, 与人们和病人的相处是令人惊讶的,他们的善意和承诺是纯粹的激励.”